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In 1964 the Royal Air Force specified a requirement (Air Staff Target (AST) 362) for a new fast jet trainer to replace the Folland Gnat. The SEPECAT Jaguar was originally intended for this role, but it was soon realised that it would be too complex an aircraft for fast jet training and only a small number of two-seat versions were purchased. Accordingly, in 1968, Hawker Siddeley Aviation (HSA) began studies for a simpler aircraft, initially as special project (SP) 117. This project was funded by the company as a private venture, in anticipation of possible RAF interest. The design was conceived of as having tandem seating and a combat capability in addition to training, as it was felt the latter would improve export sales potential. Through 1969 the project was first renamed P.1182, then HS.1182. By the end of the year HSA had submitted a proposal to the Ministry of Defence based on the design concept, and in early 1970 the RAF issued Air Staff Target (AST) 397 which formalised the requirement for new trainers of this type. The RAF selected the HS.1182 for their requirement on 1 October 1971 and the principal contract, for 175 aircraft, was signed in March 1972.

A Royal Air Force Hawk T1A at Kemble Airport, Gloucestershire, with its pilot. Renamed "Hawk" following an employee naming competition (the name "Tercel", a male hawk, was the actual winning name, but the RAF preferred the more common and simpler name),[citation needed] the aircraft first flew on 21 August 1974. In 1977 Hawker Siddeley merged with other British aircraft companies to form the nationalised British Aerospace (BAe), which subsequently became BAE Systems upon merger with Marconi Electronic Systems in 1999.

The Hawk is a tandem two-seat aircraft and has a low-mounted cantilever monoplane wing and is powered by a non-augmented turbofan engine. The low-positioned one-piece wing was designed to allow a wide landing gear track and to enable easier maintenance access. The wing is fitted with wide-span, double-slotted, trailing-edge flaps for low-speed performance. Integral to the wing is 836 litre (184 imp gal) fuel tank and room for the retractable main landing gear legs. Designed to take a +8/-4 g load, the original requirement was for two stores hardpoints but it was designed to fit four hardpoints by Hawker Siddeley.

The fuselage design was led by the need to get a height differential between the two tandem cockpits, this enabled increased visibility for the instructor in the rear seat. Each cockpit is fitted with a Martin-Baker Mk 10B zero-zero rocket assisted ejection seat. The centre fuselage has an 823 litre (181 Imp Gal) flexible fuel tank. The two-shaft turbofan Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour engine is fitted in the rear-fuselage with inlets on each side above the forward wing roots. A ram air turbine is fitted just in front of the single fin as well as a gas turbine auxiliary power unit above the engine. The forward retracting nose landing gear leg is fitted in the nose.


Technical Specifications



1× Rolls-Royce Adour Mk. 951 turbofan with FADEC, 29 kN (6,500 lbf) 29 kN



Length: 12.43 m (40 ft 9 in) Wingspan: 9.94 m (32 ft 7 in) Height: 3.98 m (13 ft 1 in) Wing area: 16.70 m² (179.64 ft²)



Empty weight: 4,480 kg (9,880 lb) Useful load: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb) Max takeoff weight: 9,100 kg (20,000 lb)



Maximum speed: 0.84 Mach (1,028 km/h, 638 mph) at altitude, Service ceiling: 13,565 m (44,500 ft)



1× 30 mm ADEN cannon, in centreline pod Up to 6,800 lb (3,085 kg) of weapons on five hardpoints, including:

4× AIM-9 Sidewinder or ASRAAM on wing pylons and wingtip rails

1,500 lb (680 kg), limited to one centreline and two wing pylons (Hawk T1).


Role: Training, Close Air Support (CAS)
Builder: Bae Systems

Variants: T1A, T1W, T45
Operators: Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, United States Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Indian Air Force

Finnish Air force, Royal Bahraini Air Force, Canadian Air Force, Indonesian Air Force, Kenya Air Force, Kuwait Air Force, Malaysia Air Force,  Oman Air Force, South Africa Air Force, South Korea Air Force, United Arab Emirates Air Force, Zimbabwe Air Force